Animals have been used repeatedly throughout the history of biomedical research early greek physician-scientists, such as aristotle, (384 - 322 bc) and erasistratus, (304 - 258 bc), performed experiments on living animals. Americans for medical progress endorses the 3rs: refinement of tests so animal distress or pain is minimal, reduction of the number of animals used in a study, and the replacement, whenever possible, of animal experiments with non-animal experiments. And policies to ensure humane treatment of all animals in research the public health service policy on humane care and use of laboratory animals, the guide for the care and use of laboratory. Ending all use of animals in research has always been a goal of a number of passionate, organized, sometimes militant, and sometimes terrorist, animal rights groups perhaps most visible among them is the people for the ethical treatment of animals (peta.
By law, animals must not be used in a research project if viable non-animal techniques are available most research is already carried out using these other methods but we still need to use animals at some point. Relatively few animals are used in research, which is a small price to pay for advancing medical progress people in the united states eat 9 billion chickens and 150 million cattle, pigs and sheep annually, yet we only use around 26 million animals for research, 95% of which are rodents, birds and fish. Animals, from the fruit fly to the mouse, are widely used in scientific research they are crucial for allowing scientists to learn more about human biology and health, and for developing new medicines the use of animals in scientific research has long been the subject of heated debate on the one.
A n estimated 26 million animals are used for research, testing, and education in the united states each year more than 70,000 of them are nonhuman primates new initiatives in the united states and abroad are seeking to replace animals with alternative models for ethical and scientific reasons. Benefits of animal research research provides opportunities for scientists to improve the lives of both humans and animals many different animals are used for scientific studies, such as cows, dogs, cats, pigs, mice, rabbits and primates. Animals are used in research when there is a need to find out what happens in the whole, living body, which is far more complex than the sum of its parts it is difficult, and in most cases simply not yet possible, to replace the use of living animals in research with alternative methods.
Guidelines for ethical conduct in the care and use of nonhuman animals in research download the guidelines (pdf, 176kb) as a field of study, psychology examines a broad range of research and applied areas. The use of animals in research, testing, and education is a privilege carrying with it unique professional, scientific, and moral obligations, and ethical responsibilities the avma encourages proper care of all animals, and supports the judicious use of animals in meaningful research, testing, and education programs. The nation's source for the latest news, policies, education, training, and information on animals in research this is an exciting time for medical research every day, nih-funded scientists make advances that will lead to safe and useful drugs, therapies, and cures. Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study. The use of animals in research should evolve out of a strong sense of ethical self-examination ethical self-examination involves a careful self-analysis of one's own personal and scientific motives.
Animals are necessary to medical research when it is impractical or unethical to use humans animals make good research subjects for a variety of reasons animals are biologically similar to humans. Home news & events animal research research case studies research case studies below are links to case studies in which researchers describe how they use animals in their research and what difference the new biomedical sciences building is making to their work. Asu animal care and use program arizona state university (asu) is committed to the ethical and humane treatment of animals in advancing research that benefits humans, animals and the environment. Animals used in research despite growing recognition of the inadequacies of animal models and growing acceptance of alternative methods, animals continue to be used in research, testing and teaching in the united states every year.
The research defence society (rds london, uk), an organization representing doctors and scientists in the debate on the use of animals in research and testing, welcomes the greater openness that the foi act brings to discussions about animal research. Human beings use animals for a wide variety of purposes, including research the approximately 260 million people in the united states keep about 110 million dogs and cats as pets more than 5 billion animals are killed in the united states each year as a source of food animals are used for. The society in particular states that in all psychological use of animals, the benefits to humans should clearly outweigh the costs to the animals involved ie when reporting research in scientific journals or otherwise, researchers must be prepared to identify any costs to the animals involved and justify them in terms of the scientific. To conduct the research needed to improve medical care, we sometimes have to work with animal models studying animals is still the only scientifically viable way to get some of the knowledge we need to improve human health, and indeed the health of other animals that benefit from veterinary care.
Commonly used in biomedical research as models for human disease, animals are also used in basic biomedical research (research for general understanding) behavioral research such as psychology and addiction studies military, space, and agricultural research product development and drug testing and science education. Where animals are used in research projects, they are used as part of a range of scientific techniques these might include human trials, computer modelling, cell culture, statistical techniques, and others.
The usda's 2015 annual report on animal use at research facilities shows a continued decreasing trend in the number of animals used in us laboratories the report revealed that 904,147 animals covered by the animal welfare act (awa) were held in labs last year, and that 767,622 were used in research, a drop of over eight percent from 2014. Use of animals the merits of animal research are widely accepted by scientists and largely appreciated by the general public major biomedical research institutions, professional societies, and research scientists have a shared understanding of the tremendous value gained from studies using animal subjects. Animals are used in all capacities of research: for example, a rabbit's sensory system may be studied in basic research she may be used as a model for eye and skin disorders, or used in eye and skin irritancy tests for environmental toxicity testing. In addition to the use of animals in education and the testing of chemicals, household products, personal care products and cosmetics, animals are also commonly used in biomedical research.